Scenario of Mushroom Production in India

Scenario of Mushroom Production in India

The production of edible mushrooms or other mushrooms has increased by 30 times during last 35 years. The reason for this growth is improved farming techniques, increasing exposure to generally improved varieties of mushroom production, health promotion and processing. In the early 20th century, success was achieved in making pure cultures from the issues and microscopic spores of button mushrooms. This was the first step in scientifically commercial cultivation of mushrooms. This gave a boost to the cultivation of button mushroom, the second major milestone was the success of small methods of composting around the year The third stop was in the year 1981, in which the first hybrid variety of mushroom,U-1, 1950. It was successful. At present, mushroom is being grown in more than 100 countries for its nutritional, medicinal quality and excellent means of income.

Mushrooms are an important horticultural cash crop. Biologically it is a type of fungus. Its fruit is fleshly filamenteous body, which is grown on humus soil, wood, sawdust, gains, straws etc. Mushrooms are mostly grown in close and dark rooms. These crops give attractive profits as compared to other crops grown in agricultural fields. Mushroom production in the world is about 4 million tons per annum and increasing at the rate of 8-10 percent per annum. We know that first mushroom cultivation in India was started in the 1960s in Solan district of Himachal Pradesh. Mushroom cultivation seasonal was successful in 1970s in the northern region of India with cold fields of Uttarakhand, Tamil Nadu and Himachal Pradesh. Now all over the India, farmers are getting involved in mushroom cultivation day by day. Extensive research on mushrooms started after the establishment of the Directorate of mushroom research in the year 1983. The emergence of a new improved variety of button mushroom helped increase production in 1990s. A mushroom is a functional food which contains various medical components and rich in vitamins and minerals. It is a good source of protein and a vegetarian source of vitamin D. They are the aggregate of agricultural industrial waste. These wastes can be effectively used for the production of mushrooms. India had registered an average growth rate of 4.3 percent as compared to average in the last three years (2016-2018). High yielding varieties of edible mushrooms were released in India. Mushroom cultivation is completed in five stages for commercial level purpose.

    Spawn purchase or preparation.
    Preparation or procurement of crop
    Pasteurization of nutrition 
    Sponging 
    Crop management

There are mainly five commercial varieties of mushrooms grown in India.
1.    Button mushroom
2.    Dhingri mushroom
3.    Straw Mushroom
4.    Milky mushroom
5.    Shiitake mushroom

Button Mushroom-

Button mushroom is a popular to be grown, which can produced in environment controlled unit as well as in non-environment controlled unit. Presently it is cultivated by environmentally controlled units in U.P., H.P., A.P., Delhi, T.N. Punjab and Haryana, Uttrakhand and Karnataka.

Dhingri Mushroom-

It is the most popular mushroom. The cultivation of dhingri mushroom can be done on a large scale on gain straw, sugarcane bagasse, jute, cotton, corn and sawdust as well on groundnut shells and dry grass etc. These mushrooms are pasteurized by various techniques like as hot water treatment steam pasteurization, chemical sterilization techniques etc. 

Straw Mushroom-

It has very short life cycle and maximum grown in odisha state . It can be successfully produced in high humidity areas at 30-35◦C temperature. Paddy straws are required for growing purpose.

Milky Mushroom-

These are suitable for hot area. Milky mushroom are popular in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. These mushrooms are best used for making pickles. Its production can be up to 30-35◦C. Because of this it can be successfully produced in areas with hot climate.

Shiitake Mushroom-

These are world’s no.1 mushroom to be grown. Main reason for growing these mushrooms for medical properties. These are grown on sawdust of broad-leaved tree. Fruiting temperature is 15-24◦C and autoclave is required for its sterilization.


Mushrooms are the future upcoming main crop of the country the scope of its growth in production is tremendous. The growth of mushroom will depend on its domestic consumption and export. Presently North India is facing a major problem of burning of agricultural residues. Mushrooms are the best solution this problem. There is a good combination of technical and non- technical manpower required to conduct mushroom growing activities in India. Nano- particle growth from mushrooms is another area of interest to be worked on. Conservation of genetic resource and its quality spawn development; low cost cultivation technology, bio-fortification of mushrooms into food products; disease pest management and farm design research are the major research activities of mushrooms.


Rahul Aske
Assistant Professor (SoAg)
SAGE University Bhopal

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