'Climate change is currently a defining issue. Many important long-term changes are taking place in the global climate systems which are visible all over the world. Direct solar radiation (massive amounts of heat/energy) falling on the Earth's surface is trapped by greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO), methane (CH), nitrous 2 4 oxides (NO), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) resulting in an increase in atmospheric temperature. Climate change is adversely affecting the Indian agriculture sector. Farmers' perception and adaptation to rapidly changing climatic conditions are considered important policy measures to address these adversities. Transformational adaptations in the form of substantial changes in land use, resource and labor allocation, occupational patterns and cropping systems are also increasingly being adopted by farmers. However, the literature does not sufficiently confirm that farmers' adaptation measures result from their perception of climate change.
Climate and agriculture are closely linked to hydrofluorocarbon global processes. Even a small change in the climate adversely affects agriculture thereby reducing the production rate. The impact of climate change through a global warming event raises the average atmospheric temperature, which has become a mega-trend significantly changing the global future.
Many changes in climate such as devastating floods, cyclones, droughts, hurricanes, heat waves, melting of glaciers, changes in patterns and rates of rainfall, diseases in agricultural productivity, freshwater scarcity, and damage to the ecosystem and environment are indicators. Climate change and South Asian countries have been adversely affected for the past few years. Possible action needs to be taken to address these negative changes.
The only option to prepare our community, region, country, and society for its consequences is 'adaptation-led mitigation' for climate change. 'Adaptation' is nothing more than adjustments in human or natural ecosystems in response to climate change and this marginally harms or destroys opportunities (IPCC, 2007). In practical terms, this means changing routine activities due to climate change, but not completely different, but purposefully modifying existing practices. Therefore, risk management is a major factor in adoption, and may require complex governance processes.
Whereas 'mitigation' is any technical modification that reduces the input and its emissions (GHGs in the atmosphere) per unit output (IPCC). Adaptation in agriculture means the dissemination of knowledge on the negative impacts of climate change so as to improve the adaptability of farmers and reduce their vulnerability. However, individuals must be accompanied by groups, government supportive policies, agricultural extension services, research, and some risk management tools. Adaptation and adaptation-led mitigation are central strategies in India's agriculture sector, and this is reflected in various international forums.
Global climate change, its causes, and its effects are one of the most emerging issues in the field of science and technology. India, a tropical country, is facing its effects through droughts, floods, cyclones, heat waves, hailstorms, and coastal salinity which have become a threat to sustainable development. About 70 percent of the Indian population is directly or indirectly linked to agriculture and the sub-sectors, and the key Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are expected to be achieved from agriculture. Rising global temperature is the cause of climate change and impacts due to the emission of huge amounts of greenhouse gases from various sources. The extreme temperature and its uncertain events disrupt the activities of all existing life on the planet through severe damage or loss. Assessing the impacts and a comprehensive understanding of the benefits of adaptation options to deal with unusual events of climate change is critical to sustaining life in the current scenario. In the journey of the Indian agriculture sector so far, climate adaptation strategies have shown a positive impact.
Ms. Poonam Chourasiya
SAGE University Bhopal